E D I S O N K I N E T O S C O P E
Thomas Alva Edison invented the phonograph in 1877, and it had quickly become the most popular home entertainment device of the century. It was to provide a visual accompaniment to the phonograph that Edison commissioned William Kennedy-Laurie Dickson, a young laboratory assistant, to invent a motion-picture system in 1888. Dickson built upon the work of Muybridge and Marey, a fact that he readily acknowledged, but he was the first to combine the two final essentials of motion-picture camera and projection technology. These were a device to ensure the intermittent but regular motion of the film strip through the camera, and a regularly perforated celluloid film strip to ensure regular transport of the film. Dickson's Kinetograph camera of 1893 photographed up to 50 feet of celluloid film, usually at the rate of about 40 frames per second. This fast speed was needed for technical reasons.